South Sudan Timeline for Elections

South Sudan Timeline: a history of dialogue and peace processes.

  1. Future date?
  2. 2018
  3. 2017
  4. 2015
  5. 2012
  6. 2011
  7. 2010
  8. 2005
  1. First National Elections – Poll: When should we have elections?
  2. National Dialogue Peace Conference
  3. Birth of National Dialogue
  4. Arusha Intra-SPLM Dialogue Summit
  5. Addis Ababa Cooperation Agreement
  6. Independence for South Sudan!
  7. Southern Sudanese Parties Convention
  8. Autonomous government formed

30 thoughts on “South Sudan Timeline for Elections

  1. Jeniso Olako

    There should be elections in 2018. It will be absurd to amend the current constitution to extend the life-term of this current government. The power must now be returned back to the people of south Sudan. The more the National Assembly continuous extending the mandate of the current government without voting in either a referendum or through elections, the more unpopular the government will become. Extension is not the interest of South Sudanese but the interest of the government due to the war they dragged themselves into since 2013. Citizens want a say in their affairs. Enough is enough.

  2. Deng Mayak

    I agree, there should be elections in 2018. Maybe end of 2018. But how is elctions if there is no security At least 50% of the country should make an elections. Do you know?

  3. Anonymous

    i do agree for South Sudan as a Country to have election in 2018 but wen we improve insecurity, the most important thing is to have a peaceful instability and to have a better standard of living to they citizens all over the 32 states with no insecurity in the country. How can we have election in South Sudan in 2018 while 1.5 Million people are in they Refugees camp in the neighbor countries? how will the candidate do their campaign while the whole country is under insecurity? no road map in the country, the extension of the election is not the interest of South Sudanese or (Citizens) but the interest of the government due to the war they dragged themselves into since 2013. Citizens want a say in their affairs. Enough is enough.
    however, how shall we manage to fund election in 2018 whereas the Government had failed to pay civil servants salary for the good number of months. At the moment i think election is not the solution per now, we really need to stop insecurity which is the big matter or concern per now in our country. we really need to have one family, one common goal, one struggle. To have a election in the country it mean we should had a peaceful mind to address our citizens on what are our future plan. To run for presidential mean a lot to the educated community or country, You need to have mandatory what you will do for the citizens if you win election and what are your previously achievement but what we have per now?

  4. Junub Adik

    All senior government officials plus the army should dialogue among themselves because they are the ones who messed this country up. They all know where they went wrong not the masses

  5. Garang L.

    National Dialogue committee should make a dialogue with J1 people; because J1 people messed up this country. Dialogue with masses would not bear any fruits because their recommendations would not be acccepted by J1 group.

    Because I feel that national Dialogue is another project to waste public funds

  6. Anonymous

    We want it 2018

  7. Machar

    Everyone need election to be held in 2018 but who will vote for candidates since citizens have deserted the country for two reasons; War and Economic crisis.
    I would personally vote if the current leadership in Government and in Opposition is change or if both of them bring an end to the suffering and lasting peace to the people of South Sudan.

    Thanks

    Machar

  8. Henry Momwa

    WE are not prepared for the election yet. Three quarters of south Sudanese are in refugee camps in the neighboring countries, who will vote in the said election? Please stop the war and repatriate the refugees back home and then will talk of elections.

  9. Eastern

    Elections in 2018? Are those leading South Sudan having their priorities right really? Forcing legitemacy by way of conducting shoddy election is another way of creating new reasons for new wars. Let Kiir accept the reality by making a life concession: dialogue with his sworne enemies but not friends to establish a caretaker government at the end of which members of such a government SHALL NOT PARTICIPATE IN ANY ELECTIVE POLITICS OF SOUTH SUDAN….

  10. Anonymus

    Why you are the only people who says not 2018? You are supporter of Kiir who dont want any elections any time. because every ones knows you cant wait. you have to have elections end 2018 it’s never happen. why you want wait? wait to 2030???

  11. majak

    the election will be conducting in which show to the world that South Sudan is democaracy Country, however the time very limited just some fews weeks to the end of 2017.
    the Citizen are expected the government put more resources in election process.

  12. majak

    let us starting preparation now and than between May and June 2018 the election will kick off

  13. Eastern

    Not any time soon. South Sudan needs to stabilise and heal itself rather than plung the country into further turmoil following a rushed and poorly prepared election in this tense political environment…

  14. Acuil Malith Banggol

    I wish all sociopolitical entities could join South Sudan National Dialogue to share their views and to listed to others. Then we should translated the National Dialogue goals into guiding principles where each entity in South Sudan sign to honor and abide. Then we agree on the Constitution that abides us. Every entity must abide by article 4 of SSTC 2011 mandating
    Defence of the Constitution

    4. (1) No person or group of persons shall take or retain control of State power except in accordance with this Constitution.

    (2) Any person or group of persons who attempts to overthrow the constitutional government, or suspend or abrogate this Constitution commits treason.

    (3) Every citizen shall have the duty to resist any person or group of persons seeking to overthrow the constitutional government, or suspend or abrogate this Constitution.

    (4) All levels of government shall promote public awareness of this Constitution by translating it into national languages and disseminating it as widely as possible. They shall provide for the teaching of this Constitution in all public and private educational and training institutions as well as in the armed and other regular forces, by regularly transmitting and publishing programmes in respect thereof through the media and press.

    Then we should have opportunity to acquire legitimacy through BALLOT NOT BULLET!

  15. yok kek nguan

    yok kek nguan south sudan president

  16. kek yok

    yok kek nguan South Sudan president

  17. Yok Kek Nguan

    South Sudan President 2018
    Yok Kek Nguan

  18. yok kek nguan

    South Sudan president 2018
    Yok Kek Nguan

  19. yok kek nguan

    President of the Republic of South Sudan yok kek nguan

  20. yok kek nguan

    South Sudan People’s Defense Forces
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    Not to be confused with South Sudan Defence Forces (militia).
    Military of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan.svg
    Flag of South Sudan
    Founded 1983 (as the SPLA)
    2017 (as the SSDF)
    Service branches Ground Force
    Air Force and Air Defence
    Riverine/Navy[1]
    Headquarters Wunyiek, Aweil East State
    Mapel, Wau State
    Leadership
    Commander-in-Chief President [[yok kek nguan]]
    Minister of Defense [[ِِِReat Nhial Tuany]]
    Chief of General Staff General [[Andrew Chuar Juet]] (since 4 May 2018)[2]
    Manpower
    Military age 18
    Active personnel 210,000, with paramilitary forces of an estimated 19,100
    Reserve personnel 76,000.
    Expenditures
    Budget 10,240,750,031 SSP ($78,615,712) [2016/17]
    Percent of GDP 0.86% (2015 est.)
    Industry
    Domestic suppliers Military Industry Corporation
    Foreign suppliers Israel
    Ethiopia
    United States of America
    Kenya
    Uganda
    Tanzania
    United Kingdom
    India
    Nigeria
    Egypt
    Canada
    Australia
    South Africa
    Ghana
    Japan
    South Korea
    Related articles
    History
    Military history of South Sudan

    First Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    Second Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    Battle of Malakal (SPLM)
    Sudan–SPLM-N War (SPLM)
    Heglig Crisis (SPLM)
    South Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    The South Sudanese People’s Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) until 2017, is the army of the Republic of South Sudan. The SPLA was founded as a guerrilla movement against the government of Sudan in 1983 and was a key participant of the Second Sudanese Civil War. Throughout the war, it was led by John Garang.

    Following John Garang’s death in 2005, Salva Kiir was named the new Commander-in-Chief of SPLA.[3] Following South Sudan’s independence in 2011, the SPLA became the new republic’s regular army. As of 2013, the SPLA was estimated to have 210,000 soldiers as well as an unknown number of personnel in the small South Sudan Air Force.[4] As of 2010, the SPLA was divided into divisions of 10,000–14,000 soldiers.[3]

    In May 2017, it was reported that South Sudanese President Salva Kiir was restructuring the army and changing its name from the SPLA to the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF).[5] In August, it was reported that the new name would be the South Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SSPDF).[6][7]

    Contents
    1 History
    1.1 War in the 1980s
    1.2 Political openings
    1.3 1991: Setback and split
    1.4 Battles of 1992
    1.5 Mid-1990s
    1.6 2005 Peace Deal
    1.7 Ministry of Defence
    1.8 2013 political crisis
    1.9 Reorganization in 2017
    2 Groups and factions
    2.1 Main factions
    2.2 Other smaller splinter groups
    3 Organization and equipment
    3.1 Current organization
    3.2 Equipment
    4 Defence expenditure
    5 Notes
    6 References
    7 External links
    History
    In 1983 a number of mutinies broke out in the barracks of the Sudanese army in the southern regions, most notably in Bor. These mutineers would form the nucleus of SPLA.[8] By June 1983 the majority of mutineers had moved to Ethiopia, or were on their way towards Gambella. The Ethiopian government’s decision to support the nascent SPLA was a means of exacting revenge upon the Sudanese government for their support of Eritrean rebels.[9]

    SPLA was led by Commander-in-Chief John Garang de Mabior.[10][11] SPLA struggled for a united and secular Sudanese state.[12] Garang stated that the struggle of the South Sudanese was the same as that of marginalized groups in the north, such as the Nuba and Fur peoples.[13] Until 1985, SPLA directed its public denouncements of the Sudanese government specifically at Nimeiri. During the years that followed, SPLA propaganda denounced the Khartoum government as a family affair that played on sectarian tensions.[13] SPLA denounced the introduction of sharia law in September 1983.[14]

    War in the 1980s

    Official flag of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army until 2011
    In the village of Bilpam, the first full-fledged SPLA battalion graduated in 1984. The name ‘Bilpam’ would carry a great symbolic importance for SPLA for years to come, as the epicentre of the uprising. After Bilpam, other SPLA training camps were established at Dimma, Bonga and Panyido.[9]

    In the mid-1980s the SPLA armed struggle had blocked the development projects of the Sudanese government, such as the Jonglei Canal and the Bentiu Oil Fields.[15]

    SPLA launched its first advance in Equatoria in 1985-1986. During this campaign, SPLA were confronted by a number of pro-government militias. The conduct of SPLA forces was chaotic, with many atrocities against the civilian population. The SPLA drove out around 35,000 Ugandan refugees (that had settled in Equatoria since the early 1980s) back into Uganda.[16]

    SPLA had a complicated relationship with Anyanya II. Anyanya II forces blocked the expansion of SPLA between 1984 and 1987, as Anyanya II attacked SPLA recruits heading towards the SPLA based in Ethiopia. Anyanya II also attacked civilians believed to be SPLA supporters.[17] The conflict between Anyanya II and SPLA had a political dimension, as Anyanya II sought to build an independent South Sudanese state.[18] SPLA did however try to win over the leaders of Anyanya II to their fold.[19] The Anyanya II commander Gordon Kong Chuol aligned with SPLA in late 1987. Other sectors of Anyanya II would follow his example over the coming years, rendering the remainder of Anyanya II (allied with the Sudanese government) marginalized.[19][20]

    Another force which confronted SPLA were the Murahaleen militias in northern Bahr el-Ghazal. Warfare between SPLA and Muraleheen began in 1987. By 1988 SPLA controlled most of the northern Bahr el-Ghazal.[16] Unlike the Anyanya II, however, the Murahaleen had no political ambitions.[18]

    In March 1986, SPLA kidnapped a Norwegian aid worker of the Christian NGO Kirkens Nødhjelp (Norwegian Church Aid).[21]

    Political openings
    SPLA boycotted the 1986 elections. In half of the constituencies of southern Sudan elections could not be held due to the SPLA boycott.[13] [22] In September 1989, the RCC invited different sectors to a ‘National Dialogue Conference’. The SPLA refused to attend.[23]

    On November 15, 1988 SPLA entered into an alliance with the DUP. The two parties had agreed on the lifting of the state of emergency and abolition of sharia law. The press release was made public through an announcement on Radio SPLA. After DUP rejoined the government, a ceasefire with SPLA was achieved.[13][24] After the elections, negotiations between SPLA and Sadiq al-Mahdi had been started. But the talks were aborted as SPLA shot down a civilian airplane. 60 people were killed in the attack.[13]

    With the NIF coup d’état in 1989, all peace talks ended.[25] SPLA launched a major offensive between 1989 and the fall of the Ethiopian Derg government in 1991. It captured various towns, such as Bor, Waat, Yambio, Kaya, Kajo-Kaji, Nimule, Kapoeta, Torit, Akobo and Nasir. By the middle of 1991, SPLA controlled most parts of southern Sudan with the exception of the major garrison towns (Juba, Yei, Malakal and Wau)[19] Between January 21 and January 29, 1990 SPLA shelled Juba town. SPLA forces also moved into the Nuba Mountains and the southern parts of the Blue Nile State. In comparison with its 1985–1986 offensive in Equatoria, the conduct of SPLA was now more orderly.[16]

    1991: Setback and split

    High-ranking SPLA officers at the South Sudan independence celebrations, 2011
    But the downfall of the Derg government in Ethiopia in May 1991 caused a major set-back. The Ethiopian government had provided the SPLA with military supplies, training facilities and safe-haven for bases during 18 years. Soon after the change of government in Ethiopia, SPLA accompanied hundreds of thousands of refugees back into Sudan.[19]

    A split in SPLA had simmered since late 1990, as Lam Akol and Riek Machar began to question Garang’s leadership.[26] Lam Akol began secretly contacting SPLA officers to join his side, especially amongst the Nuer people and Shilluk people.[27] The situation deteriorated after the fall of the Derg.[26] As the Derg regime crumbled, Lam Akol published a document titled Why Garang Must Go Now.[27] The split was made public on August 28, 1991 in what became known as the Nasir Declaration. The dissidents called for democratization of SPLA and a stop to human rights abuses. Moreover, the dissidents called for an independent South Sudan (in contrast to the SPLA line of creating a united and secular Sudan). Kong Coul joined the rebellion. The ‘SPLA-Nasir’ was joined by the SPLA forces in Ayod, Waat, Adok, Abwong, Ler and Akobo.[12] A period of chaos reigned inside SPLA, as it was not clear which units sided with Garang and which units sided with SPLA-Nasir.[28]

    Garang issued a statement through the SPLA radio communications system, denouncing the coup. Nine out of eleven (excluding himself) SPLA/M PMHC members sided with Garang.[11] The mainstream SPLA led by John Garang was based in Torit.[10] The two SPLA factions fought each other, including attacks on civilians in the home turf of their opponents.[29]

    Battles of 1992
    As of 1992 the Sudanese government launched a major offensive against SPLA, which was weakened by the split with SPLA-Nasir. SPLA lost control of Torit (where SPLA was headquartered), Bor, Yirol, Pibor, Pochalla and Kapoeta.[30][31]

    SPLA made two attacks on Juba in June–July 1992. SPLA nearly captured the town. After the attacks, the Sudanese government forces committed harsh reprisals against the civilian population. Summary executions of suspected SPLA collaborators were carried out.[32] On September 27, 1992 the deputy commander-in-chief of SPLA, William Nyuon, defected and took a section of fighters with him.[33] SPLA re-captured Bor on November 29, 1991.[34]

    Mid-1990s

    SPLA officer as part of Joint Integrated Unit during the CPA era
    As of the mid-1990s, the majority of the population of Southern Sudan lived in areas under the control of either the mainstream SPLA or SPLA-Nasir.[35]

    2005 Peace Deal
    In 2004, a year before the peace deal, the Coalition to Stop Child Soldiers, estimated that there were between 2,500 and 5,000 children serving in the SPLA.[36]

    Salva Kiir Mayardit, Commander-in-Chief of SPLA
    Following the signing of the CPA, a transformation process of SPLA began. This process was actively supported through funding from the United States. In 2005, John Garang restructured the top leadership of SPLA, with a Chief of General Staff, Lt. Gen. Oyay Deng Ajak, and four Deputy Chiefs of General Staff; Maj. Gen. Salva Mathok Gengdit (Administration), Maj. Gen. Bior Ajang Aswad (Operations), Maj. Gen. James Hoth Mai (Logistics) and Maj. Gen. Obuto Mamur Mete (Political and Moral Orientation).[3]

    Ministry of Defence
    In 2007, the SPLA was further organised into the Ministry of Defence. Gen. Dominic Dim Deng an SPLA veteran and distinguished General, was chosen to become the first Minister for SPLA Affairs subsequently the first political officer of the SPLA. Gen. Dim died in a plane crash in 2008 alongside his wife Madam Josephine Apieu Jenaro Aken and other SPLA officers. He is buried alongside his wife at the SPLA headquarters in Bilpham, Juba.[3]

    Deputy Chief of Staff (Logistics) James Hoth Mai replaced Oyay Deng Ajak as Chief of General Staff in May 2009.[37]

    In 2010 U.S. diplomats reported that Samora “made a point to discuss how the SPLA needed to be reorganized. He stated that the SPLA was top heavy, carrying nearly 550 general officers and providing more than 200 security guards for each minister.”[38]

    The Government of Southern Sudan named the SPLA headquarters outside Juba ‘Bilpam’.[9]

    Work on a national security strategy began in late 2012.[4]

    2013 political crisis
    Ambox current red.svg
    This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2014)
    Main article: 2013 South Sudanese political crisis
    On December 15, 2013, fighting broke out in Juba between different factions of the armed forces in what the South Sudanese government has described as a coup d’état. President Salva Kiir announced that the attempt was put down the next day, but fighting resumed December 16. Military spokesman Colonel Philip Aguer said that some military installations had been attacked from armed soldiers but that “the army is in full control of Juba.” He added that an investigation was under way and that though the situation was tense it was also unlikely to deteriorate.[39]

    Reorganization in 2017
    On May 16, 2017, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir restructured the army and changed its name – Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) – to South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF).[40]

    On 28 April 2018, Chief of General Staff James Ajongo Mawut died in Cairo from a short illness.[41] He was replaced by General Gabriel Jok Riak on 4 May 2018.[2]

    Groups and factions
    Main factions
    In 2013, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement split into two main factions, divided on the issue over leadership of the ruling party SPLM:

    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (In Government) – this group was led by President Salva Kiir Mayardit; ruling faction that signed Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005. Salva Kiir served as president of the Transitional Autonomous Region of South Sudan from its formation in 2005 after the death of John Garang to the countries independence in 2011. The SPLM-IO faction formally withdrew from the SPLM ruling faction in 2013.
    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (In Opposition) – this group was formed in 2013 is led by former South Sudan Vice President Riek Machar. The group is major opponent to the SPLM-IG faction in the Southern Sudanese civil war.
    Other smaller splinter groups
    Tiger Faction New Forces – this splinter faction was formed when a SPLA unit rebelled that mostly consisted of Shilluk soldiers under the command of Maj. Gen. Yoanis Okiech[42]
    Organization and equipment
    Current organization
    The SPLA is operationally commanded by the Chief of General Staff (COGS). The COGS oversees five directorates, each led by a deputy chief of general staff (DCOGS):

    Administration
    Operations
    Logistics
    Political and Moral Orientation
    Training and Research
    The SPLA currently has nine divisions and a small air force, all of which report to the DCOGS, Operations:

    1st Division : Renk, Upper Nile State
    2nd Division : Giada Barracks, Juba, Central Equatoria State
    3rd Division : Winejok, Northern Bahr el Ghazal State[43] (also covers Warrap State)
    4th Division : Mapel, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[44] (formerly at Rubkona)
    5th Division : Girinti Barracks, Wau, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[45] (formerly at Rumbek)
    6th Division : Maridi, Western Equatoria State
    7th Division : Owachi, Upper Nile State[46]
    8th Division : Bor, Jonglei State
    Mechanized Division : Mapel, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[47]
    A Special Forces brigade with four battalions
    The Sudan People’s Air Force : Juba, Central Equatoria State
    Per a 2015 security agreement with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition, military forces currently stationed in Juba, Bor and Malakal are to be moved to bases at least 25 kilometers outside of each respective city. The Presidential Guard at Giada Barracks and SPLA’s General Headquarters in Bilpam are authorized exceptions to the agreement.[48]

    Equipment

    A T-72 in SPLA service
    As of 2013 the SPLA’s land forces operated the following heavy equipment:

    110 x T-72[4]
    A small number of T-55 tanks[4]
    12 x 2S1 Gvozdika[4]
    12 x 2S3 Akatsiya[4]
    15 x BM-21 Grad[4]
    Mamba APC
    More than 30 82mm mortars[4]
    As of 2013 the South Sudan Air Force operated the following aircraft:

    1 x Beechcraft 1900[4]
    9 x Mil Mi-17[4]
    1 x Mi-172[4]
    Defence expenditure
    According to the 2013 edition of the International Institute for Strategic Studies’ report The Military Balance, South Sudan’s defence budgets since 2011 have been as follows:

    Year South Sudanese pounds US dollar equivalent
    2011 1.6bn 533m
    2012 2.42bn 537m
    2013 2.52bn
    Notes
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to SPLA.
    “SPLA renamed South Sudan Defense Force in a major army shake up”. Eye Radio Network. 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    “New South Sudan army chief sworn in”. Radio Tamazuj. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    Small Arms Survey. In Need of Review: SPLA Transformation in 2006–10 and Beyond
    IISS 2013, p. 532.
    AfricaNews. “South Sudan president restructures army, changes its name to SSDF – Africanews”. africanews.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    Isabirye, Joel (August 8, 2017). “From SPLA to SSPDF: The Detailed Account of why South Sudan is changing the name of its Heroic National Army”. The Investigator. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
    “South Sudan president says changed SPLA name to represent will of people”. Sudan Tribune. Juba. August 4, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 16
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. pp. 252-253
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. xiv
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 210
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 90
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 18-19
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 23
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 65
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 153-155
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 1
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 27
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 21, 23
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 101
    Norsk Bistandshistorie (Norwegian aid history), Randi Rønning Balsvik, 2016. p. 115 https://www.idunn.no/ht/2017/02/randi_roenning_balsvik_norsk_bistandshistorie
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 22
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 25
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 53
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 128
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 25
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 208
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 91
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 3
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 35
    Karl R. DeRouen and Uk Heo. Civil wars of the world: major conflicts since World War II. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 748.
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 56-58
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 220
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 99
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 12
    “SPLA to demobilize all child soldiers by end of the year – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
    “Kiir appoints new army Chief of Staff, relieves deputies”. Sudan Tribune. June 1, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
    10ADDISABABA176
    “Heavy gunfire rocks South Sudan capital”. Al Jazeera. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
    http://www.africanews.com/2017/05/16/south-sudan-president-restructures-army-changes-its-name-to-ssdf//
    Dumo, Denis. “Wartorn South Sudan’s army chief dies”. U.S. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    “The Conflict in Upper Nile State”. Small Arms Survey. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
    https://radiotamazuj.org/en/article/south-sudan-army-defection-wunyiik
    https://radiotamazuj.org/en/article/missing-money-spla-div-4-widows-unpaid
    “SPLA launches military operations against SPLA-IO forces in Bahr-el-Ghazal region – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. http://www.sudantribune.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    “SSDM/A-Upper Nile”. http://www.smallarmssurveysudan.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    “The Conflict in Bahr el Ghazal”. http://www.smallarmssurveysudan.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    Desk, News. “SPLA Starts redeploying forces out of Juba”. thenationmirror.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    References
    International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2013). The Military Balance 2013. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222.
    Further reading: Sikainga, Ahmad Alawad, and Daly, M. W., Civil war in the Sudan, London ; New York : British Academic Press : Distributed by St. Martinʾs Press in the United States of America and Canada, 1993. (See Douglas and Prunier article on origins of SPLA)
    External links
    Who’s who in SPLM-Juba
    Photographer’s Account of the SPLA – “The Cost of Silence: A Traveling Exhibition”
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    Navigation menu

  21. yok kek nguan

    udan
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Republic of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan
    Flag
    Coat of arms of South Sudan
    Coat of arms
    Motto: “Justice, Liberty, Prosperity”
    Anthem: “South Sudan Oyee!”

    MENU0:00
    South Sudan (orthographic projection).svg
    Location of South Sudan
    Capital
    and largest city Juba
    04°51′N 31°36′E
    Official languages English[1][2]
    Recognised national languages
    Bari Dinka Luo Murle Nuer Zande
    and around 60 other languages
    [note 1]
    Demonym South Sudanese
    Government Federation[4] under a presidential constitutional republic
    • President
    Yok Kek Nguan
    • Vice President
    Paul Mowein Ajang
    • First Vice President
    Taban Deng Gai
    Legislature National Legislature
    • Upper house
    Council of States
    • Lower house
    National Legislative Assembly
    Establishment
    • End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    1 January 1956
    • Comprehensive Peace Agreement
    6 January 2005
    • Autonomy
    9 July 2005
    • Independence from Sudan
    9 July 2011
    • United Nations admission
    13 July 2011
    Area
    • Total
    619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (41st)
    Population
    • 2016 estimate
    12,230,730[5]
    • 2008 census
    8,260,490 (disputed)[6] (94th)
    • Density
    13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
    GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $20.038 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $1,525[7]
    GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $3.618 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $275[7]
    Gini (2009) 45.5[8]
    medium
    HDI (2015) Decrease 0.418[9]
    low · 181st
    Currency South Sudanese pound (SSP)
    Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
    Drives on the right
    Calling code +211[10]
    ISO 3166 code SS
    Internet TLD .ss[11]a
    Registered, but not yet operational.

    The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan.
    Bahr el Ghazal
    Equatoria
    Greater Upper Nile
    South Sudan is a country in Africa. Its official name is the Republic of South Sudan.[12] It used to be a part of Sudan. A civil war began in 2013.

    The landlocked country is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and the Republic of Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.

    History
    What is now South Sudan was once part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. This part of the British Empire became the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011 at midnight local time,[13][14] after a referendum held in January 2011. In the referendum, nearly 99% of voters wanted to separate from the rest of Sudan.[15]

    The United Nations Security Council met on 13 July 2011 to formally discuss membership for the Republic of South Sudan. The next day, 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state.[16][17] South Sudan has also applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[18] the East African Community,[19][20] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[21] the International Monetary Fund,[22] and the World Bank.[23] The country was declared eligible to apply for membership in the Arab League as well.[24]

    At the 2012 Summer Olympics, one athlete from South Sudan competed under the flag of the International Olympic Committee.[25] In 2013 a civil war broke out.

    Geography
    Its capital is Juba. Between eight and twelve million people live there. Over 200 languages are spoken, but the official language is English. Arabic is also spoken by many people.

    The main religion is Christianity, practised by nearly 78% of the population. Another 20% practise African traditional religions, and just 3% are Muslim.

    Much of South Sudan’s economy is based on oil, but they also have a large lumber industry mainly consisting of teak. It is a very poor and under-developed country. There is very little infrastructure, and the civil wars have caused a lot of damage.

    References
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011”. Government of South Sudan. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. Part One, 6(2). “English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan”.
    “At a Glance”. Official portal. Government of Southern Sudan. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011” (PDF). Government of South Sudan. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    “S. Sudanese government agrees to federal system with rebels – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Addis Ababa. 27 September 2014.
    “World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision”. ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
    “Discontent over Sudan census”. News24.com. AFP. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan”. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.
    “Gini Index”. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
    “2016 Human Development Report” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
    International Telecommunication Union (14 July 2011). “New country, new number: Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan”. Press release. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
    “.ss Domain Delegation Data”. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. ICANN. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    “South Sudan”. The World Factbook. CIA. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1)
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2)
    Fick, Maggie (30 January 2011). “Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession”. USA Today. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
    Worsnip, Patrick (14 July 2011). “South Sudan admitted to U.N. as 193rd member”. Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
    “UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State”. United Nations News Service. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan launches bid to join Commonwealth”. Talk of Sudan. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “South Sudan: Big trading potential for EAC”. IGIHE. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “Welcome South Sudan to EAC!”. East African Business Week. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies”. Sudan Tribune. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
    “IMF receives membership application from South Sudan, seeks contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to help new country”. International Monetary Fund. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “World Bank group congratulates people of South Sudan on independence”. The Financial. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan “entitled to join Arab League””. Sudan Tribune. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
    “London 2012: Refugee runs for world, family walk 50km to watch,” NDTV (New Delhi Television), 11 August 2012; retrieved 2012-8-16.
    Notes

    The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, Part One, 6(1): “All indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted”.[3]
    [hide]
    Countries and territories of Africa
    Independent
    Algeria • Angola • Benin • Botswana • Burkina Faso • Burundi • Cameroon • Cape Verde • Central African Republic • Chad • Comoros • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Republic of the Congo • Côte d’Ivoire • Djibouti • Egypt • Equatorial Guinea • Eritrea • Ethiopia • Gabon • The Gambia • Ghana • Guinea • Guinea-Bissau • Kenya • Lesotho • Liberia • Libya • Madagascar • Malawi • Mali • Mauritania • Mauritius • Morocco • Mozambique • Namibia • Niger • Nigeria • Rwanda • São Tomé and Príncipe • Senegal • Seychelles • Sierra Leone • Somalia • Somaliland • South Africa • South Sudan • Sudan • Swaziland • Tanzania • Togo • Tunisia • Uganda • Zambia • Zimbabwe
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    Categories: SudanSouth Sudan2011 establishmentsLeast developed countries21st century establishments in Africa
    Navigation menu

  22. yok kek nguan

    South Sudan
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Republic of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan
    Flag
    Coat of arms of South Sudan
    Coat of arms
    Motto: “Justice, Liberty, Prosperity”
    Anthem: “South Sudan Oyee!”

    MENU0:00
    South Sudan (orthographic projection).svg
    Location of South Sudan
    Capital
    and largest city Juba
    04°51′N 31°36′E
    Official languages English[1][2]
    Recognised national languages
    Bari Dinka Luo Murle Nuer Zande
    and around 60 other languages
    [note 1]
    Demonym South Sudanese
    Government Federation[4] under a presidential constitutional republic
    • President
    Yok Kek Nguan
    • Vice President
    Paul Mowein Ajang
    • First Vice President
    Taban Deng Gai
    Legislature National Legislature
    • Upper house
    Council of States
    • Lower house
    National Legislative Assembly
    Establishment
    • End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    1 January 1956
    • Comprehensive Peace Agreement
    6 January 2005
    • Autonomy
    9 July 2005
    • Independence from Sudan
    9 July 2011
    • United Nations admission
    13 July 2011
    Area
    • Total
    619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (41st)
    Population
    • 2016 estimate
    12,230,730[5]
    • 2008 census
    8,260,490 (disputed)[6] (94th)
    • Density
    13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
    GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $20.038 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $1,525[7]
    GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $3.618 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $275[7]
    Gini (2009) 45.5[8]
    medium
    HDI (2015) Decrease 0.418[9]
    low · 181st
    Currency South Sudanese pound (SSP)
    Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
    Drives on the right
    Calling code +211[10]
    ISO 3166 code SS
    Internet TLD .ss[11]a
    Registered, but not yet operational.

    The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan.
    Bahr el Ghazal
    Equatoria
    Greater Upper Nile
    South Sudan is a country in Africa. Its official name is the Republic of South Sudan.[12] It used to be a part of Sudan. A civil war began in 2013.

    The landlocked country is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and the Republic of Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.

    History
    What is now South Sudan was once part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. This part of the British Empire became the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011 at midnight local time,[13][14] after a referendum held in January 2011. In the referendum, nearly 99% of voters wanted to separate from the rest of Sudan.[15]

    The United Nations Security Council met on 13 July 2011 to formally discuss membership for the Republic of South Sudan. The next day, 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state.[16][17] South Sudan has also applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[18] the East African Community,[19][20] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[21] the International Monetary Fund,[22] and the World Bank.[23] The country was declared eligible to apply for membership in the Arab League as well.[24]

    At the 2012 Summer Olympics, one athlete from South Sudan competed under the flag of the International Olympic Committee.[25] In 2013 a civil war broke out.

    Geography
    Its capital is Juba. Between eight and twelve million people live there. Over 200 languages are spoken, but the official language is English. Arabic is also spoken by many people.

    The main religion is Christianity, practised by nearly 78% of the population. Another 20% practise African traditional religions, and just 3% are Muslim.

    Much of South Sudan’s economy is based on oil, but they also have a large lumber industry mainly consisting of teak. It is a very poor and under-developed country. There is very little infrastructure, and the civil wars have caused a lot of damage.

    References
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011”. Government of South Sudan. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. Part One, 6(2). “English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan”.
    “At a Glance”. Official portal. Government of Southern Sudan. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011” (PDF). Government of South Sudan. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    “S. Sudanese government agrees to federal system with rebels – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Addis Ababa. 27 September 2014.
    “World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision”. ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
    “Discontent over Sudan census”. News24.com. AFP. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan”. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.
    “Gini Index”. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
    “2016 Human Development Report” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
    International Telecommunication Union (14 July 2011). “New country, new number: Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan”. Press release. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
    “.ss Domain Delegation Data”. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. ICANN. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    “South Sudan”. The World Factbook. CIA. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1)
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2)
    Fick, Maggie (30 January 2011). “Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession”. USA Today. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
    Worsnip, Patrick (14 July 2011). “South Sudan admitted to U.N. as 193rd member”. Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
    “UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State”. United Nations News Service. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan launches bid to join Commonwealth”. Talk of Sudan. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “South Sudan: Big trading potential for EAC”. IGIHE. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “Welcome South Sudan to EAC!”. East African Business Week. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies”. Sudan Tribune. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
    “IMF receives membership application from South Sudan, seeks contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to help new country”. International Monetary Fund. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “World Bank group congratulates people of South Sudan on independence”. The Financial. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan “entitled to join Arab League””. Sudan Tribune. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
    “London 2012: Refugee runs for world, family walk 50km to watch,” NDTV (New Delhi Television), 11 August 2012; retrieved 2012-8-16.
    Notes

    The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, Part One, 6(1): “All indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted”.[3]
    [hide]
    Countries and territories of Africa
    Independent
    Algeria • Angola • Benin • Botswana • Burkina Faso • Burundi • Cameroon • Cape Verde • Central African Republic • Chad • Comoros • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Republic of the Congo • Côte d’Ivoire • Djibouti • Egypt • Equatorial Guinea • Eritrea • Ethiopia • Gabon • The Gambia • Ghana • Guinea • Guinea-Bissau • Kenya • Lesotho • Liberia • Libya • Madagascar • Malawi • Mali • Mauritania • Mauritius • Morocco • Mozambique • Namibia • Niger • Nigeria • Rwanda • São Tomé and Príncipe • Senegal • Seychelles • Sierra Leone • Somalia • Somaliland • South Africa • South Sudan • Sudan • Swaziland • Tanzania • Togo • Tunisia • Uganda • Zambia • Zimbabwe
    Governed by
    other countries
    Canary Islands • Ceuta and Melilla • Madeira Islands • Mayotte • Réunion • Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha • Western Sahara
    Categories: SudanSouth Sudan2011 establishmentsLeast developed countries21st century establishments in Africa
    Navigation menu
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  23. sstv@post.com

    South Sudan
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Republic of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan
    Flag
    Coat of arms of South Sudan
    Coat of arms
    Motto: “Justice, Liberty, Prosperity”
    Anthem: “South Sudan Oyee!”

    MENU0:00
    South Sudan (orthographic projection).svg
    Location of South Sudan
    Capital
    and largest city Juba
    04°51′N 31°36′E
    Official languages English[1][2]
    Recognised national languages
    Bari Dinka Luo Murle Nuer Zande
    and around 60 other languages
    [note 1]
    Demonym South Sudanese
    Government Federation[4] under a presidential constitutional republic
    • President
    Yok Kek Nguan
    • Vice President
    Paul Mowein Ajang
    • First Vice President
    Taban Deng Gai
    Legislature National Legislature
    • Upper house
    Council of States
    • Lower house
    National Legislative Assembly
    Establishment
    • End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    1 January 1956
    • Comprehensive Peace Agreement
    6 January 2005
    • Autonomy
    9 July 2005
    • Independence from Sudan
    9 July 2011
    • United Nations admission
    13 July 2011
    Area
    • Total
    619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (41st)
    Population
    • 2016 estimate
    12,230,730[5]
    • 2008 census
    8,260,490 (disputed)[6] (94th)
    • Density
    13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
    GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $20.038 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $1,525[7]
    GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $3.618 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $275[7]
    Gini (2009) 45.5[8]
    medium
    HDI (2015) Decrease 0.418[9]
    low · 181st
    Currency South Sudanese pound (SSP)
    Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
    Drives on the right
    Calling code +211[10]
    ISO 3166 code SS
    Internet TLD .ss[11]a
    Registered, but not yet operational.

    The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan.
    Bahr el Ghazal
    Equatoria
    Greater Upper Nile
    South Sudan is a country in Africa. Its official name is the Republic of South Sudan.[12] It used to be a part of Sudan. A civil war began in 2013.

    The landlocked country is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and the Republic of Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.

    History
    What is now South Sudan was once part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. This part of the British Empire became the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011 at midnight local time,[13][14] after a referendum held in January 2011. In the referendum, nearly 99% of voters wanted to separate from the rest of Sudan.[15]

    The United Nations Security Council met on 13 July 2011 to formally discuss membership for the Republic of South Sudan. The next day, 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state.[16][17] South Sudan has also applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[18] the East African Community,[19][20] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[21] the International Monetary Fund,[22] and the World Bank.[23] The country was declared eligible to apply for membership in the Arab League as well.[24]

    At the 2012 Summer Olympics, one athlete from South Sudan competed under the flag of the International Olympic Committee.[25] In 2013 a civil war broke out.

    Geography
    Its capital is Juba. Between eight and twelve million people live there. Over 200 languages are spoken, but the official language is English. Arabic is also spoken by many people.

    The main religion is Christianity, practised by nearly 78% of the population. Another 20% practise African traditional religions, and just 3% are Muslim.

    Much of South Sudan’s economy is based on oil, but they also have a large lumber industry mainly consisting of teak. It is a very poor and under-developed country. There is very little infrastructure, and the civil wars have caused a lot of damage.

    References
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011”. Government of South Sudan. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. Part One, 6(2). “English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan”.
    “At a Glance”. Official portal. Government of Southern Sudan. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011” (PDF). Government of South Sudan. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    “S. Sudanese government agrees to federal system with rebels – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Addis Ababa. 27 September 2014.
    “World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision”. ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
    “Discontent over Sudan census”. News24.com. AFP. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan”. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.
    “Gini Index”. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
    “2016 Human Development Report” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
    International Telecommunication Union (14 July 2011). “New country, new number: Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan”. Press release. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
    “.ss Domain Delegation Data”. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. ICANN. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    “South Sudan”. The World Factbook. CIA. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1)
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2)
    Fick, Maggie (30 January 2011). “Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession”. USA Today. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
    Worsnip, Patrick (14 July 2011). “South Sudan admitted to U.N. as 193rd member”. Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
    “UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State”. United Nations News Service. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan launches bid to join Commonwealth”. Talk of Sudan. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “South Sudan: Big trading potential for EAC”. IGIHE. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “Welcome South Sudan to EAC!”. East African Business Week. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies”. Sudan Tribune. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
    “IMF receives membership application from South Sudan, seeks contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to help new country”. International Monetary Fund. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “World Bank group congratulates people of South Sudan on independence”. The Financial. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan “entitled to join Arab League””. Sudan Tribune. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
    “London 2012: Refugee runs for world, family walk 50km to watch,” NDTV (New Delhi Television), 11 August 2012; retrieved 2012-8-16.
    Notes

    The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, Part One, 6(1): “All indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted”.[3]
    [hide]
    Countries and territories of Africa
    Independent
    Algeria • Angola • Benin • Botswana • Burkina Faso • Burundi • Cameroon • Cape Verde • Central African Republic • Chad • Comoros • Democratic Republic of the Congo • Republic of the Congo • Côte d’Ivoire • Djibouti • Egypt • Equatorial Guinea • Eritrea • Ethiopia • Gabon • The Gambia • Ghana • Guinea • Guinea-Bissau • Kenya • Lesotho • Liberia • Libya • Madagascar • Malawi • Mali • Mauritania • Mauritius • Morocco • Mozambique • Namibia • Niger • Nigeria • Rwanda • São Tomé and Príncipe • Senegal • Seychelles • Sierra Leone • Somalia • Somaliland • South Africa • South Sudan • Sudan • Swaziland • Tanzania • Togo • Tunisia • Uganda • Zambia • Zimbabwe
    Governed by
    other countries
    Canary Islands • Ceuta and Melilla • Madeira Islands • Mayotte • Réunion • Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha • Western Sahara
    Categories: SudanSouth Sudan2011 establishmentsLeast developed countries21st century establishments in Africa
    Navigation menu
    Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inPageTalkReadChangeC

  24. yok kek nguan South Sudan President

    YOK KEK NGUAN 21ST JUNE 2018 AT 10:33 PM Your comment is awaiting moderation. South Sudan People’s Defense Forces From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia You have a new message from another user (last change). Jump to navigationJump to search Not to be confused with South Sudan Defence Forces (militia). Military of South Sudan Flag of South Sudan.svg Flag of South Sudan Founded 1983 (as the SPLA) 2017 (as the SSDF) Service branches Ground Force Air Force and Air Defence Riverine/Navy[1] Headquarters Wunyiek, Aweil East State Mapel, Wau State Leadership Commander-in-Chief President [[yok kek nguan]] Minister of Defense [[ِِِReat Nhial Tuany]] Chief of General Staff General [[Andrew Chuar Juet]] (since 4 May 2018)[2] Manpower Military age 18 Active personnel 210,000, with paramilitary forces of an estimated 19,100 Reserve personnel 76,000. Expenditures Budget 10,240,750,031 SSP ($78,615,712) [2016/17] Percent of GDP 0.86% (2015 est.) Industry Domestic suppliers Military Industry Cor
    Inbox
    x

    Kek Yok
    7 Jul (13 days ago)
    to me

    YOK KEK NGUAN
    21ST JUNE 2018 AT 10:33 PM
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    South Sudan People’s Defense Forces
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    You have a new message from another user (last change).
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Not to be confused with South Sudan Defence Forces (militia).
    Military of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan.svg
    Flag of South Sudan
    Founded 1983 (as the SPLA)
    2017 (as the SSDF)
    Service branches Ground Force
    Air Force and Air Defence
    Riverine/Navy[1]
    Headquarters Wunyiek, Aweil East State
    Mapel, Wau State
    Leadership
    Commander-in-Chief President [[yok kek nguan]]
    Minister of Defense [[ِِِReat Nhial Tuany]]
    Chief of General Staff General [[Andrew Chuar Juet]] (since 4 May 2018)[2]
    Manpower
    Military age 18
    Active personnel 210,000, with paramilitary forces of an estimated 19,100
    Reserve personnel 76,000.
    Expenditures
    Budget 10,240,750,031 SSP ($78,615,712) [2016/17]
    Percent of GDP 0.86% (2015 est.)
    Industry
    Domestic suppliers Military Industry Corporation
    Foreign suppliers Israel
    Ethiopia
    United States of America
    Kenya
    Uganda
    Tanzania
    United Kingdom
    India
    Nigeria
    Egypt
    Canada
    Australia
    South Africa
    Ghana
    Japan
    South Korea
    Related articles
    History
    Military history of South Sudan

    First Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    Second Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    Battle of Malakal (SPLM)
    Sudan–SPLM-N War (SPLM)
    Heglig Crisis (SPLM)
    South Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    The South Sudanese People’s Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) until 2017, is the army of the Republic of South Sudan. The SPLA was founded as a guerrilla movement against the government of Sudan in 1983 and was a key participant of the Second Sudanese Civil War. Throughout the war, it was led by John Garang.

    Following John Garang’s death in 2005, Salva Kiir was named the new Commander-in-Chief of SPLA.[3] Following South Sudan’s independence in 2011, the SPLA became the new republic’s regular army. As of 2013, the SPLA was estimated to have 210,000 soldiers as well as an unknown number of personnel in the small South Sudan Air Force.[4] As of 2010, the SPLA was divided into divisions of 10,000–14,000 soldiers.[3]

    In May 2017, it was reported that South Sudanese President Salva Kiir was restructuring the army and changing its name from the SPLA to the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF).[5] In August, it was reported that the new name would be the South Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SSPDF).[6][7]

    Contents
    1 History
    1.1 War in the 1980s
    1.2 Political openings
    1.3 1991: Setback and split
    1.4 Battles of 1992
    1.5 Mid-1990s
    1.6 2005 Peace Deal
    1.7 Ministry of Defence
    1.8 2013 political crisis
    1.9 Reorganization in 2017
    2 Groups and factions
    2.1 Main factions
    2.2 Other smaller splinter groups
    3 Organization and equipment
    3.1 Current organization
    3.2 Equipment
    4 Defence expenditure
    5 Notes
    6 References
    7 External links
    History
    In 1983 a number of mutinies broke out in the barracks of the Sudanese army in the southern regions, most notably in Bor. These mutineers would form the nucleus of SPLA.[8] By June 1983 the majority of mutineers had moved to Ethiopia, or were on their way towards Gambella. The Ethiopian government’s decision to support the nascent SPLA was a means of exacting revenge upon the Sudanese government for their support of Eritrean rebels.[9]

    SPLA was led by Commander-in-Chief John Garang de Mabior.[10][11] SPLA struggled for a united and secular Sudanese state.[12] Garang stated that the struggle of the South Sudanese was the same as that of marginalized groups in the north, such as the Nuba and Fur peoples.[13] Until 1985, SPLA directed its public denouncements of the Sudanese government specifically at Nimeiri. During the years that followed, SPLA propaganda denounced the Khartoum government as a family affair that played on sectarian tensions.[13] SPLA denounced the introduction of sharia law in September 1983.[14]

    War in the 1980s

    Official flag of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army until 2011
    In the village of Bilpam, the first full-fledged SPLA battalion graduated in 1984. The name ‘Bilpam’ would carry a great symbolic importance for SPLA for years to come, as the epicentre of the uprising. After Bilpam, other SPLA training camps were established at Dimma, Bonga and Panyido.[9]

    In the mid-1980s the SPLA armed struggle had blocked the development projects of the Sudanese government, such as the Jonglei Canal and the Bentiu Oil Fields.[15]

    SPLA launched its first advance in Equatoria in 1985-1986. During this campaign, SPLA were confronted by a number of pro-government militias. The conduct of SPLA forces was chaotic, with many atrocities against the civilian population. The SPLA drove out around 35,000 Ugandan refugees (that had settled in Equatoria since the early 1980s) back into Uganda.[16]

    SPLA had a complicated relationship with Anyanya II. Anyanya II forces blocked the expansion of SPLA between 1984 and 1987, as Anyanya II attacked SPLA recruits heading towards the SPLA based in Ethiopia. Anyanya II also attacked civilians believed to be SPLA supporters.[17] The conflict between Anyanya II and SPLA had a political dimension, as Anyanya II sought to build an independent South Sudanese state.[18] SPLA did however try to win over the leaders of Anyanya II to their fold.[19] The Anyanya II commander Gordon Kong Chuol aligned with SPLA in late 1987. Other sectors of Anyanya II would follow his example over the coming years, rendering the remainder of Anyanya II (allied with the Sudanese government) marginalized.[19][20]

    Another force which confronted SPLA were the Murahaleen militias in northern Bahr el-Ghazal. Warfare between SPLA and Muraleheen began in 1987. By 1988 SPLA controlled most of the northern Bahr el-Ghazal.[16] Unlike the Anyanya II, however, the Murahaleen had no political ambitions.[18]

    In March 1986, SPLA kidnapped a Norwegian aid worker of the Christian NGO Kirkens Nødhjelp (Norwegian Church Aid).[21]

    Political openings
    SPLA boycotted the 1986 elections. In half of the constituencies of southern Sudan elections could not be held due to the SPLA boycott.[13] [22] In September 1989, the RCC invited different sectors to a ‘National Dialogue Conference’. The SPLA refused to attend.[23]

    On November 15, 1988 SPLA entered into an alliance with the DUP. The two parties had agreed on the lifting of the state of emergency and abolition of sharia law. The press release was made public through an announcement on Radio SPLA. After DUP rejoined the government, a ceasefire with SPLA was achieved.[13][24] After the elections, negotiations between SPLA and Sadiq al-Mahdi had been started. But the talks were aborted as SPLA shot down a civilian airplane. 60 people were killed in the attack.[13]

    With the NIF coup d’état in 1989, all peace talks ended.[25] SPLA launched a major offensive between 1989 and the fall of the Ethiopian Derg government in 1991. It captured various towns, such as Bor, Waat, Yambio, Kaya, Kajo-Kaji, Nimule, Kapoeta, Torit, Akobo and Nasir. By the middle of 1991, SPLA controlled most parts of southern Sudan with the exception of the major garrison towns (Juba, Yei, Malakal and Wau)[19] Between January 21 and January 29, 1990 SPLA shelled Juba town. SPLA forces also moved into the Nuba Mountains and the southern parts of the Blue Nile State. In comparison with its 1985–1986 offensive in Equatoria, the conduct of SPLA was now more orderly.[16]

    1991: Setback and split

    High-ranking SPLA officers at the South Sudan independence celebrations, 2011
    But the downfall of the Derg government in Ethiopia in May 1991 caused a major set-back. The Ethiopian government had provided the SPLA with military supplies, training facilities and safe-haven for bases during 18 years. Soon after the change of government in Ethiopia, SPLA accompanied hundreds of thousands of refugees back into Sudan.[19]

    A split in SPLA had simmered since late 1990, as Lam Akol and Riek Machar began to question Garang’s leadership.[26] Lam Akol began secretly contacting SPLA officers to join his side, especially amongst the Nuer people and Shilluk people.[27] The situation deteriorated after the fall of the Derg.[26] As the Derg regime crumbled, Lam Akol published a document titled Why Garang Must Go Now.[27] The split was made public on August 28, 1991 in what became known as the Nasir Declaration. The dissidents called for democratization of SPLA and a stop to human rights abuses. Moreover, the dissidents called for an independent South Sudan (in contrast to the SPLA line of creating a united and secular Sudan). Kong Coul joined the rebellion. The ‘SPLA-Nasir’ was joined by the SPLA forces in Ayod, Waat, Adok, Abwong, Ler and Akobo.[12] A period of chaos reigned inside SPLA, as it was not clear which units sided with Garang and which units sided with SPLA-Nasir.[28]

    Garang issued a statement through the SPLA radio communications system, denouncing the coup. Nine out of eleven (excluding himself) SPLA/M PMHC members sided with Garang.[11] The mainstream SPLA led by John Garang was based in Torit.[10] The two SPLA factions fought each other, including attacks on civilians in the home turf of their opponents.[29]

    Battles of 1992
    As of 1992 the Sudanese government launched a major offensive against SPLA, which was weakened by the split with SPLA-Nasir. SPLA lost control of Torit (where SPLA was headquartered), Bor, Yirol, Pibor, Pochalla and Kapoeta.[30][31]

    SPLA made two attacks on Juba in June–July 1992. SPLA nearly captured the town. After the attacks, the Sudanese government forces committed harsh reprisals against the civilian population. Summary executions of suspected SPLA collaborators were carried out.[32] On September 27, 1992 the deputy commander-in-chief of SPLA, William Nyuon, defected and took a section of fighters with him.[33] SPLA re-captured Bor on November 29, 1991.[34]

    Mid-1990s

    SPLA officer as part of Joint Integrated Unit during the CPA era
    As of the mid-1990s, the majority of the population of Southern Sudan lived in areas under the control of either the mainstream SPLA or SPLA-Nasir.[35]

    2005 Peace Deal
    In 2004, a year before the peace deal, the Coalition to Stop Child Soldiers, estimated that there were between 2,500 and 5,000 children serving in the SPLA.[36]

    Salva Kiir Mayardit, Commander-in-Chief of SPLA
    Following the signing of the CPA, a transformation process of SPLA began. This process was actively supported through funding from the United States. In 2005, John Garang restructured the top leadership of SPLA, with a Chief of General Staff, Lt. Gen. Oyay Deng Ajak, and four Deputy Chiefs of General Staff; Maj. Gen. Salva Mathok Gengdit (Administration), Maj. Gen. Bior Ajang Aswad (Operations), Maj. Gen. James Hoth Mai (Logistics) and Maj. Gen. Obuto Mamur Mete (Political and Moral Orientation).[3]

    Ministry of Defence
    In 2007, the SPLA was further organised into the Ministry of Defence. Gen. Dominic Dim Deng an SPLA veteran and distinguished General, was chosen to become the first Minister for SPLA Affairs subsequently the first political officer of the SPLA. Gen. Dim died in a plane crash in 2008 alongside his wife Madam Josephine Apieu Jenaro Aken and other SPLA officers. He is buried alongside his wife at the SPLA headquarters in Bilpham, Juba.[3]

    Deputy Chief of Staff (Logistics) James Hoth Mai replaced Oyay Deng Ajak as Chief of General Staff in May 2009.[37]

    In 2010 U.S. diplomats reported that Samora “made a point to discuss how the SPLA needed to be reorganized. He stated that the SPLA was top heavy, carrying nearly 550 general officers and providing more than 200 security guards for each minister.”[38]

    The Government of Southern Sudan named the SPLA headquarters outside Juba ‘Bilpam’.[9]

    Work on a national security strategy began in late 2012.[4]

    2013 political crisis
    Ambox current red.svg
    This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2014)
    Main article: 2013 South Sudanese political crisis
    On December 15, 2013, fighting broke out in Juba between different factions of the armed forces in what the South Sudanese government has described as a coup d’état. President Salva Kiir announced that the attempt was put down the next day, but fighting resumed December 16. Military spokesman Colonel Philip Aguer said that some military installations had been attacked from armed soldiers but that “the army is in full control of Juba.” He added that an investigation was under way and that though the situation was tense it was also unlikely to deteriorate.[39]

    Reorganization in 2017
    On May 16, 2017, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir restructured the army and changed its name – Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) – to South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF).[40]

    On 28 April 2018, Chief of General Staff James Ajongo Mawut died in Cairo from a short illness.[41] He was replaced by General Gabriel Jok Riak on 4 May 2018.[2]

    Groups and factions
    Main factions
    In 2013, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement split into two main factions, divided on the issue over leadership of the ruling party SPLM:

    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (In Government) – this group was led by President Salva Kiir Mayardit; ruling faction that signed Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005. Salva Kiir served as president of the Transitional Autonomous Region of South Sudan from its formation in 2005 after the death of John Garang to the countries independence in 2011. The SPLM-IO faction formally withdrew from the SPLM ruling faction in 2013.
    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (In Opposition) – this group was formed in 2013 is led by former South Sudan Vice President Riek Machar. The group is major opponent to the SPLM-IG faction in the Southern Sudanese civil war.
    Other smaller splinter groups
    Tiger Faction New Forces – this splinter faction was formed when a SPLA unit rebelled that mostly consisted of Shilluk soldiers under the command of Maj. Gen. Yoanis Okiech[42]
    Organization and equipment
    Current organization
    The SPLA is operationally commanded by the Chief of General Staff (COGS). The COGS oversees five directorates, each led by a deputy chief of general staff (DCOGS):

    Administration
    Operations
    Logistics
    Political and Moral Orientation
    Training and Research
    The SPLA currently has nine divisions and a small air force, all of which report to the DCOGS, Operations:

    1st Division : Renk, Upper Nile State
    2nd Division : Giada Barracks, Juba, Central Equatoria State
    3rd Division : Winejok, Northern Bahr el Ghazal State[43] (also covers Warrap State)
    4th Division : Mapel, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[44] (formerly at Rubkona)
    5th Division : Girinti Barracks, Wau, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[45] (formerly at Rumbek)
    6th Division : Maridi, Western Equatoria State
    7th Division : Owachi, Upper Nile State[46]
    8th Division : Bor, Jonglei State
    Mechanized Division : Mapel, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[47]
    A Special Forces brigade with four battalions
    The Sudan People’s Air Force : Juba, Central Equatoria State
    Per a 2015 security agreement with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition, military forces currently stationed in Juba, Bor and Malakal are to be moved to bases at least 25 kilometers outside of each respective city. The Presidential Guard at Giada Barracks and SPLA’s General Headquarters in Bilpam are authorized exceptions to the agreement.[48]

    Equipment

    A T-72 in SPLA service
    As of 2013 the SPLA’s land forces operated the following heavy equipment:

    110 x T-72[4]
    A small number of T-55 tanks[4]
    12 x 2S1 Gvozdika[4]
    12 x 2S3 Akatsiya[4]
    15 x BM-21 Grad[4]
    Mamba APC
    More than 30 82mm mortars[4]
    As of 2013 the South Sudan Air Force operated the following aircraft:

    1 x Beechcraft 1900[4]
    9 x Mil Mi-17[4]
    1 x Mi-172[4]
    Defence expenditure
    According to the 2013 edition of the International Institute for Strategic Studies’ report The Military Balance, South Sudan’s defence budgets since 2011 have been as follows:

    Year South Sudanese pounds US dollar equivalent
    2011 1.6bn 533m
    2012 2.42bn 537m
    2013 2.52bn
    Notes
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to SPLA.
    “SPLA renamed South Sudan Defense Force in a major army shake up”. Eye Radio Network. 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    “New South Sudan army chief sworn in”. Radio Tamazuj. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    Small Arms Survey. In Need of Review: SPLA Transformation in 2006–10 and Beyond
    IISS 2013, p. 532.
    AfricaNews. “South Sudan president restructures army, changes its name to SSDF – Africanews”. africanews.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    Isabirye, Joel (August 8, 2017). “From SPLA to SSPDF: The Detailed Account of why South Sudan is changing the name of its Heroic National Army”. The Investigator. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
    “South Sudan president says changed SPLA name to represent will of people”. Sudan Tribune. Juba. August 4, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 16
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. pp. 252-253
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. xiv
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 210
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 90
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 18-19
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 23
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 65
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 153-155
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 1
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 27
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 21, 23
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 101
    Norsk Bistandshistorie (Norwegian aid history), Randi Rønning Balsvik, 2016. p. 115 https://www.idunn.no/ht/2017/02/randi_roenning_balsvik_norsk_bistandshistorie
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 22
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 25
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 53
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 128
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 25
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 208
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 91
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 3
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 35
    Karl R. DeRouen and Uk Heo. Civil wars of the world: major conflicts since World War II. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 748.
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 56-58
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 220
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 99
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 12
    “SPLA to demobilize all child soldiers by end of the year – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
    “Kiir appoints new army Chief of Staff, relieves deputies”. Sudan Tribune. June 1, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
    10ADDISABABA176
    “Heavy gunfire rocks South Sudan capital”. Al Jazeera. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
    http://www.africanews.com/2017/05/16/south-sudan-president-restructures-army-changes-its-name-to-ssdf//
    Dumo, Denis. “Wartorn South Sudan’s army chief dies”. U.S. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    “The Conflict in Upper Nile State”. Small Arms Survey. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
    https://radiotamazuj.org/en/article/south-sudan-army-defection-wunyiik
    https://radiotamazuj.org/en/article/missing-money-spla-div-4-widows-unpaid
    “SPLA launches military operations against SPLA-IO forces in Bahr-el-Ghazal region – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. http://www.sudantribune.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    “SSDM/A-Upper Nile”. http://www.smallarmssurveysudan.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    “The Conflict in Bahr el Ghazal”. http://www.smallarmssurveysudan.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    Desk, News. “SPLA Starts redeploying forces out of Juba”. thenationmirror.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    References
    International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2013). The Military Balance 2013. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222.
    Further reading: Sikainga, Ahmad Alawad, and Daly, M. W., Civil war in the Sudan, London ; New York : British Academic Press : Distributed by St. Martinʾs Press in the United States of America and Canada, 1993. (See Douglas and Prunier article on origins of SPLA)
    External links
    Who’s who in SPLM-Juba
    Photographer’s Account of the SPLA – “The Cost of Silence: A Traveling Exhibition”
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  25. yok kek nguan

    SSTV@POST.COM
    6TH JULY 2018 AT 1:28 AM
    South Sudan
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Republic of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan
    Flag
    Coat of arms of South Sudan
    Coat of arms
    Motto: “Justice, Liberty, Prosperity”
    Anthem: “South Sudan Oyee!”

    MENU0:00
    South Sudan (orthographic projection).svg
    Location of South Sudan
    Capital
    and largest city Juba
    04°51′N 31°36′E
    Official languages English[1][2]
    Recognised national languages
    Bari Dinka Luo Murle Nuer Zande
    and around 60 other languages
    [note 1]
    Demonym South Sudanese
    Government Federation[4] under a presidential constitutional republic
    • President
    Yok Kek Nguan
    • Vice President
    Paul Mowein Ajang
    • First Vice President
    Taban Deng Gai
    Legislature National Legislature
    • Upper house
    Council of States
    • Lower house
    National Legislative Assembly
    Establishment
    • End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    1 January 1956
    • Comprehensive Peace Agreement
    6 January 2005
    • Autonomy
    9 July 2005
    • Independence from Sudan
    9 July 2011
    • United Nations admission
    13 July 2011
    Area
    • Total
    619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (41st)
    Population
    • 2016 estimate
    12,230,730[5]
    • 2008 census
    8,260,490 (disputed)[6] (94th)
    • Density
    13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
    GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $20.038 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $1,525[7]
    GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $3.618 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $275[7]
    Gini (2009) 45.5[8]
    medium
    HDI (2015) Decrease 0.418[9]
    low · 181st
    Currency South Sudanese pound (SSP)
    Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
    Drives on the right
    Calling code +211[10]
    ISO 3166 code SS
    Internet TLD .ss[11]a
    Registered, but not yet operational.

    The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan.
    Bahr el Ghazal
    Equatoria
    Greater Upper Nile
    South Sudan is a country in Africa. Its official name is the Republic of South Sudan.[12] It used to be a part of Sudan. A civil war began in 2013.

    The landlocked country is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and the Republic of Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.

    History
    What is now South Sudan was once part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. This part of the British Empire became the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011 at midnight local time,[13][14] after a referendum held in January 2011. In the referendum, nearly 99% of voters wanted to separate from the rest of Sudan.[15]

    The United Nations Security Council met on 13 July 2011 to formally discuss membership for the Republic of South Sudan. The next day, 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state.[16][17] South Sudan has also applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[18] the East African Community,[19][20] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[21] the International Monetary Fund,[22] and the World Bank.[23] The country was declared eligible to apply for membership in the Arab League as well.[24]

    At the 2012 Summer Olympics, one athlete from South Sudan competed under the flag of the International Olympic Committee.[25] In 2013 a civil war broke out.

    Geography
    Its capital is Juba. Between eight and twelve million people live there. Over 200 languages are spoken, but the official language is English. Arabic is also spoken by many people.

    The main religion is Christianity, practised by nearly 78% of the population. Another 20% practise African traditional religions, and just 3% are Muslim.

    Much of South Sudan’s economy is based on oil, but they also have a large lumber industry mainly consisting of teak. It is a very poor and under-developed country. There is very little infrastructure, and the civil wars have caused a lot of damage.

    References
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011”. Government of South Sudan. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. Part One, 6(2). “English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan”.
    “At a Glance”. Official portal. Government of Southern Sudan. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011” (PDF). Government of South Sudan. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    “S. Sudanese government agrees to federal system with rebels – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Addis Ababa. 27 September 2014.
    “World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision”. ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
    “Discontent over Sudan census”. News24.com. AFP. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan”. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.
    “Gini Index”. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
    “2016 Human Development Report” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
    International Telecommunication Union (14 July 2011). “New country, new number: Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan”. Press release. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
    “.ss Domain Delegation Data”. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. ICANN. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    “South Sudan”. The World Factbook. CIA. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1)
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2)
    Fick, Maggie (30 January 2011). “Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession”. USA Today. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
    Worsnip, Patrick (14 July 2011). “South Sudan admitted to U.N. as 193rd member”. Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
    “UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State”. United Nations News Service. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan launches bid to join Commonwealth”. Talk of Sudan. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “South Sudan: Big trading potential for EAC”. IGIHE. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “Welcome South Sudan to EAC!”. East African Business Week. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies”. Sudan Tribune. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
    “IMF receives membership application from South Sudan, seeks contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to help new country”. International Monetary Fund. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “World Bank group congratulates people of South Sudan on independence”. The Financial. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan “entitled to join Arab League””. Sudan Tribune. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
    “London 2012: Refugee runs for world, family walk 50km to watch,” NDTV (New Delhi Television), 11 August 2012; retrieved 2012-8-16.
    Notes

    The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, Part One, 6(1): “All indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted”.[3]
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  26. yok kek nguan

    YOK KEK NGUAN
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    South Sudan People’s Defense Forces
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    Jump to navigationJump to search
    Not to be confused with South Sudan Defence Forces (militia).
    Military of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan.svg
    Flag of South Sudan
    Founded 1983 (as the SPLA)
    2017 (as the SSDF)
    Service branches Ground Force
    Air Force and Air Defence
    Riverine/Navy[1]
    Headquarters Wunyiek, Aweil East State
    Mapel, Wau State
    Leadership
    Commander-in-Chief President [[yok kek nguan]]
    Minister of Defense [[ِِِReat Nhial Tuany]]
    Chief of General Staff General [[Andrew Chuar Juet]] (since 4 May 2018)[2]
    Manpower
    Military age 18
    Active personnel 210,000, with paramilitary forces of an estimated 19,100
    Reserve personnel 76,000.
    Expenditures
    Budget 10,240,750,031 SSP ($78,615,712) [2016/17]
    Percent of GDP 0.86% (2015 est.)
    Industry
    Domestic suppliers Military Industry Corporation
    Foreign suppliers Israel
    Ethiopia
    United States of America
    Kenya
    Uganda
    Tanzania
    United Kingdom
    India
    Nigeria
    Egypt
    Canada
    Australia
    South Africa
    Ghana
    Japan
    South Korea
    Related articles
    History
    Military history of South Sudan

    First Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    Second Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    Battle of Malakal (SPLM)
    Sudan–SPLM-N War (SPLM)
    Heglig Crisis (SPLM)
    South Sudanese Civil War (SPLM)
    The South Sudanese People’s Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) until 2017, is the army of the Republic of South Sudan. The SPLA was founded as a guerrilla movement against the government of Sudan in 1983 and was a key participant of the Second Sudanese Civil War. Throughout the war, it was led by John Garang.

    Following John Garang’s death in 2005, Salva Kiir was named the new Commander-in-Chief of SPLA.[3] Following South Sudan’s independence in 2011, the SPLA became the new republic’s regular army. As of 2013, the SPLA was estimated to have 210,000 soldiers as well as an unknown number of personnel in the small South Sudan Air Force.[4] As of 2010, the SPLA was divided into divisions of 10,000–14,000 soldiers.[3]

    In May 2017, it was reported that South Sudanese President Salva Kiir was restructuring the army and changing its name from the SPLA to the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF).[5] In August, it was reported that the new name would be the South Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SSPDF).[6][7]

    Contents
    1 History
    1.1 War in the 1980s
    1.2 Political openings
    1.3 1991: Setback and split
    1.4 Battles of 1992
    1.5 Mid-1990s
    1.6 2005 Peace Deal
    1.7 Ministry of Defence
    1.8 2013 political crisis
    1.9 Reorganization in 2017
    2 Groups and factions
    2.1 Main factions
    2.2 Other smaller splinter groups
    3 Organization and equipment
    3.1 Current organization
    3.2 Equipment
    4 Defence expenditure
    5 Notes
    6 References
    7 External links
    History
    In 1983 a number of mutinies broke out in the barracks of the Sudanese army in the southern regions, most notably in Bor. These mutineers would form the nucleus of SPLA.[8] By June 1983 the majority of mutineers had moved to Ethiopia, or were on their way towards Gambella. The Ethiopian government’s decision to support the nascent SPLA was a means of exacting revenge upon the Sudanese government for their support of Eritrean rebels.[9]

    SPLA was led by Commander-in-Chief John Garang de Mabior.[10][11] SPLA struggled for a united and secular Sudanese state.[12] Garang stated that the struggle of the South Sudanese was the same as that of marginalized groups in the north, such as the Nuba and Fur peoples.[13] Until 1985, SPLA directed its public denouncements of the Sudanese government specifically at Nimeiri. During the years that followed, SPLA propaganda denounced the Khartoum government as a family affair that played on sectarian tensions.[13] SPLA denounced the introduction of sharia law in September 1983.[14]

    War in the 1980s

    Official flag of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army until 2011
    In the village of Bilpam, the first full-fledged SPLA battalion graduated in 1984. The name ‘Bilpam’ would carry a great symbolic importance for SPLA for years to come, as the epicentre of the uprising. After Bilpam, other SPLA training camps were established at Dimma, Bonga and Panyido.[9]

    In the mid-1980s the SPLA armed struggle had blocked the development projects of the Sudanese government, such as the Jonglei Canal and the Bentiu Oil Fields.[15]

    SPLA launched its first advance in Equatoria in 1985-1986. During this campaign, SPLA were confronted by a number of pro-government militias. The conduct of SPLA forces was chaotic, with many atrocities against the civilian population. The SPLA drove out around 35,000 Ugandan refugees (that had settled in Equatoria since the early 1980s) back into Uganda.[16]

    SPLA had a complicated relationship with Anyanya II. Anyanya II forces blocked the expansion of SPLA between 1984 and 1987, as Anyanya II attacked SPLA recruits heading towards the SPLA based in Ethiopia. Anyanya II also attacked civilians believed to be SPLA supporters.[17] The conflict between Anyanya II and SPLA had a political dimension, as Anyanya II sought to build an independent South Sudanese state.[18] SPLA did however try to win over the leaders of Anyanya II to their fold.[19] The Anyanya II commander Gordon Kong Chuol aligned with SPLA in late 1987. Other sectors of Anyanya II would follow his example over the coming years, rendering the remainder of Anyanya II (allied with the Sudanese government) marginalized.[19][20]

    Another force which confronted SPLA were the Murahaleen militias in northern Bahr el-Ghazal. Warfare between SPLA and Muraleheen began in 1987. By 1988 SPLA controlled most of the northern Bahr el-Ghazal.[16] Unlike the Anyanya II, however, the Murahaleen had no political ambitions.[18]

    In March 1986, SPLA kidnapped a Norwegian aid worker of the Christian NGO Kirkens Nødhjelp (Norwegian Church Aid).[21]

    Political openings
    SPLA boycotted the 1986 elections. In half of the constituencies of southern Sudan elections could not be held due to the SPLA boycott.[13] [22] In September 1989, the RCC invited different sectors to a ‘National Dialogue Conference’. The SPLA refused to attend.[23]

    On November 15, 1988 SPLA entered into an alliance with the DUP. The two parties had agreed on the lifting of the state of emergency and abolition of sharia law. The press release was made public through an announcement on Radio SPLA. After DUP rejoined the government, a ceasefire with SPLA was achieved.[13][24] After the elections, negotiations between SPLA and Sadiq al-Mahdi had been started. But the talks were aborted as SPLA shot down a civilian airplane. 60 people were killed in the attack.[13]

    With the NIF coup d’état in 1989, all peace talks ended.[25] SPLA launched a major offensive between 1989 and the fall of the Ethiopian Derg government in 1991. It captured various towns, such as Bor, Waat, Yambio, Kaya, Kajo-Kaji, Nimule, Kapoeta, Torit, Akobo and Nasir. By the middle of 1991, SPLA controlled most parts of southern Sudan with the exception of the major garrison towns (Juba, Yei, Malakal and Wau)[19] Between January 21 and January 29, 1990 SPLA shelled Juba town. SPLA forces also moved into the Nuba Mountains and the southern parts of the Blue Nile State. In comparison with its 1985–1986 offensive in Equatoria, the conduct of SPLA was now more orderly.[16]

    1991: Setback and split

    High-ranking SPLA officers at the South Sudan independence celebrations, 2011
    But the downfall of the Derg government in Ethiopia in May 1991 caused a major set-back. The Ethiopian government had provided the SPLA with military supplies, training facilities and safe-haven for bases during 18 years. Soon after the change of government in Ethiopia, SPLA accompanied hundreds of thousands of refugees back into Sudan.[19]

    A split in SPLA had simmered since late 1990, as Lam Akol and Riek Machar began to question Garang’s leadership.[26] Lam Akol began secretly contacting SPLA officers to join his side, especially amongst the Nuer people and Shilluk people.[27] The situation deteriorated after the fall of the Derg.[26] As the Derg regime crumbled, Lam Akol published a document titled Why Garang Must Go Now.[27] The split was made public on August 28, 1991 in what became known as the Nasir Declaration. The dissidents called for democratization of SPLA and a stop to human rights abuses. Moreover, the dissidents called for an independent South Sudan (in contrast to the SPLA line of creating a united and secular Sudan). Kong Coul joined the rebellion. The ‘SPLA-Nasir’ was joined by the SPLA forces in Ayod, Waat, Adok, Abwong, Ler and Akobo.[12] A period of chaos reigned inside SPLA, as it was not clear which units sided with Garang and which units sided with SPLA-Nasir.[28]

    Garang issued a statement through the SPLA radio communications system, denouncing the coup. Nine out of eleven (excluding himself) SPLA/M PMHC members sided with Garang.[11] The mainstream SPLA led by John Garang was based in Torit.[10] The two SPLA factions fought each other, including attacks on civilians in the home turf of their opponents.[29]

    Battles of 1992
    As of 1992 the Sudanese government launched a major offensive against SPLA, which was weakened by the split with SPLA-Nasir. SPLA lost control of Torit (where SPLA was headquartered), Bor, Yirol, Pibor, Pochalla and Kapoeta.[30][31]

    SPLA made two attacks on Juba in June–July 1992. SPLA nearly captured the town. After the attacks, the Sudanese government forces committed harsh reprisals against the civilian population. Summary executions of suspected SPLA collaborators were carried out.[32] On September 27, 1992 the deputy commander-in-chief of SPLA, William Nyuon, defected and took a section of fighters with him.[33] SPLA re-captured Bor on November 29, 1991.[34]

    Mid-1990s

    SPLA officer as part of Joint Integrated Unit during the CPA era
    As of the mid-1990s, the majority of the population of Southern Sudan lived in areas under the control of either the mainstream SPLA or SPLA-Nasir.[35]

    2005 Peace Deal
    In 2004, a year before the peace deal, the Coalition to Stop Child Soldiers, estimated that there were between 2,500 and 5,000 children serving in the SPLA.[36]

    Salva Kiir Mayardit, Commander-in-Chief of SPLA
    Following the signing of the CPA, a transformation process of SPLA began. This process was actively supported through funding from the United States. In 2005, John Garang restructured the top leadership of SPLA, with a Chief of General Staff, Lt. Gen. Oyay Deng Ajak, and four Deputy Chiefs of General Staff; Maj. Gen. Salva Mathok Gengdit (Administration), Maj. Gen. Bior Ajang Aswad (Operations), Maj. Gen. James Hoth Mai (Logistics) and Maj. Gen. Obuto Mamur Mete (Political and Moral Orientation).[3]

    Ministry of Defence
    In 2007, the SPLA was further organised into the Ministry of Defence. Gen. Dominic Dim Deng an SPLA veteran and distinguished General, was chosen to become the first Minister for SPLA Affairs subsequently the first political officer of the SPLA. Gen. Dim died in a plane crash in 2008 alongside his wife Madam Josephine Apieu Jenaro Aken and other SPLA officers. He is buried alongside his wife at the SPLA headquarters in Bilpham, Juba.[3]

    Deputy Chief of Staff (Logistics) James Hoth Mai replaced Oyay Deng Ajak as Chief of General Staff in May 2009.[37]

    In 2010 U.S. diplomats reported that Samora “made a point to discuss how the SPLA needed to be reorganized. He stated that the SPLA was top heavy, carrying nearly 550 general officers and providing more than 200 security guards for each minister.”[38]

    The Government of Southern Sudan named the SPLA headquarters outside Juba ‘Bilpam’.[9]

    Work on a national security strategy began in late 2012.[4]

    2013 political crisis
    Ambox current red.svg
    This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2014)
    Main article: 2013 South Sudanese political crisis
    On December 15, 2013, fighting broke out in Juba between different factions of the armed forces in what the South Sudanese government has described as a coup d’état. President Salva Kiir announced that the attempt was put down the next day, but fighting resumed December 16. Military spokesman Colonel Philip Aguer said that some military installations had been attacked from armed soldiers but that “the army is in full control of Juba.” He added that an investigation was under way and that though the situation was tense it was also unlikely to deteriorate.[39]

    Reorganization in 2017
    On May 16, 2017, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir restructured the army and changed its name – Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) – to South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF).[40]

    On 28 April 2018, Chief of General Staff James Ajongo Mawut died in Cairo from a short illness.[41] He was replaced by General Gabriel Jok Riak on 4 May 2018.[2]

    Groups and factions
    Main factions
    In 2013, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement split into two main factions, divided on the issue over leadership of the ruling party SPLM:

    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (In Government) – this group was led by President Salva Kiir Mayardit; ruling faction that signed Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005. Salva Kiir served as president of the Transitional Autonomous Region of South Sudan from its formation in 2005 after the death of John Garang to the countries independence in 2011. The SPLM-IO faction formally withdrew from the SPLM ruling faction in 2013.
    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (In Opposition) – this group was formed in 2013 is led by former South Sudan Vice President Riek Machar. The group is major opponent to the SPLM-IG faction in the Southern Sudanese civil war.
    Other smaller splinter groups
    Tiger Faction New Forces – this splinter faction was formed when a SPLA unit rebelled that mostly consisted of Shilluk soldiers under the command of Maj. Gen. Yoanis Okiech[42]
    Organization and equipment
    Current organization
    The SPLA is operationally commanded by the Chief of General Staff (COGS). The COGS oversees five directorates, each led by a deputy chief of general staff (DCOGS):

    Administration
    Operations
    Logistics
    Political and Moral Orientation
    Training and Research
    The SPLA currently has nine divisions and a small air force, all of which report to the DCOGS, Operations:

    1st Division : Renk, Upper Nile State
    2nd Division : Giada Barracks, Juba, Central Equatoria State
    3rd Division : Winejok, Northern Bahr el Ghazal State[43] (also covers Warrap State)
    4th Division : Mapel, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[44] (formerly at Rubkona)
    5th Division : Girinti Barracks, Wau, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[45] (formerly at Rumbek)
    6th Division : Maridi, Western Equatoria State
    7th Division : Owachi, Upper Nile State[46]
    8th Division : Bor, Jonglei State
    Mechanized Division : Mapel, Western Bahr el Ghazal State[47]
    A Special Forces brigade with four battalions
    The Sudan People’s Air Force : Juba, Central Equatoria State
    Per a 2015 security agreement with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition, military forces currently stationed in Juba, Bor and Malakal are to be moved to bases at least 25 kilometers outside of each respective city. The Presidential Guard at Giada Barracks and SPLA’s General Headquarters in Bilpam are authorized exceptions to the agreement.[48]

    Equipment

    A T-72 in SPLA service
    As of 2013 the SPLA’s land forces operated the following heavy equipment:

    110 x T-72[4]
    A small number of T-55 tanks[4]
    12 x 2S1 Gvozdika[4]
    12 x 2S3 Akatsiya[4]
    15 x BM-21 Grad[4]
    Mamba APC
    More than 30 82mm mortars[4]
    As of 2013 the South Sudan Air Force operated the following aircraft:

    1 x Beechcraft 1900[4]
    9 x Mil Mi-17[4]
    1 x Mi-172[4]
    Defence expenditure
    According to the 2013 edition of the International Institute for Strategic Studies’ report The Military Balance, South Sudan’s defence budgets since 2011 have been as follows:

    Year South Sudanese pounds US dollar equivalent
    2011 1.6bn 533m
    2012 2.42bn 537m
    2013 2.52bn
    Notes
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to SPLA.
    “SPLA renamed South Sudan Defense Force in a major army shake up”. Eye Radio Network. 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    “New South Sudan army chief sworn in”. Radio Tamazuj. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    Small Arms Survey. In Need of Review: SPLA Transformation in 2006–10 and Beyond
    IISS 2013, p. 532.
    AfricaNews. “South Sudan president restructures army, changes its name to SSDF – Africanews”. africanews.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    Isabirye, Joel (August 8, 2017). “From SPLA to SSPDF: The Detailed Account of why South Sudan is changing the name of its Heroic National Army”. The Investigator. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
    “South Sudan president says changed SPLA name to represent will of people”. Sudan Tribune. Juba. August 4, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 16
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. pp. 252-253
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. xiv
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 210
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 90
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 18-19
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 23
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 65
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 153-155
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 1
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 27
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 21, 23
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 101
    Norsk Bistandshistorie (Norwegian aid history), Randi Rønning Balsvik, 2016. p. 115 https://www.idunn.no/ht/2017/02/randi_roenning_balsvik_norsk_bistandshistorie
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 22
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 25
    Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 53
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 128
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 25
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 208
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 91
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 3
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 35
    Karl R. DeRouen and Uk Heo. Civil wars of the world: major conflicts since World War II. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 748.
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 56-58
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 220
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 99
    Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 12
    “SPLA to demobilize all child soldiers by end of the year – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
    “Kiir appoints new army Chief of Staff, relieves deputies”. Sudan Tribune. June 1, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
    10ADDISABABA176
    “Heavy gunfire rocks South Sudan capital”. Al Jazeera. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
    http://www.africanews.com/2017/05/16/south-sudan-president-restructures-army-changes-its-name-to-ssdf//
    Dumo, Denis. “Wartorn South Sudan’s army chief dies”. U.S. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
    “The Conflict in Upper Nile State”. Small Arms Survey. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
    https://radiotamazuj.org/en/article/south-sudan-army-defection-wunyiik
    https://radiotamazuj.org/en/article/missing-money-spla-div-4-widows-unpaid
    “SPLA launches military operations against SPLA-IO forces in Bahr-el-Ghazal region – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. http://www.sudantribune.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    “SSDM/A-Upper Nile”. http://www.smallarmssurveysudan.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    “The Conflict in Bahr el Ghazal”. http://www.smallarmssurveysudan.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    Desk, News. “SPLA Starts redeploying forces out of Juba”. thenationmirror.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
    References
    International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2013). The Military Balance 2013. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222.
    Further reading: Sikainga, Ahmad Alawad, and Daly, M. W., Civil war in the Sudan, London ; New York : British Academic Press : Distributed by St. Martinʾs Press in the United States of America and Canada, 1993. (See Douglas and Prunier article on origins of SPLA)
    External links
    Who’s who in SPLM-Juba
    Photographer’s Account of the SPLA – “The Cost of Silence: A Traveling Exhibition”
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  27. yok kek nguan South Sudan President

    YOK KEK NGUAN
    24TH JUNE 2018 AT 9:16 PM
    udan
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    Republic of South Sudan
    Flag of South Sudan
    Flag
    Coat of arms of South Sudan
    Coat of arms
    Motto: “Justice, Liberty, Prosperity”
    Anthem: “South Sudan Oyee!”

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    South Sudan (orthographic projection).svg
    Location of South Sudan
    Capital
    and largest city Juba
    04°51′N 31°36′E
    Official languages English[1][2]
    Recognised national languages
    Bari Dinka Luo Murle Nuer Zande
    and around 60 other languages
    [note 1]
    Demonym South Sudanese
    Government Federation[4] under a presidential constitutional republic
    • President
    Yok Kek Nguan
    • Vice President
    Paul Mowein Ajang
    • First Vice President
    Taban Deng Gai
    Legislature National Legislature
    • Upper house
    Council of States
    • Lower house
    National Legislative Assembly
    Establishment
    • End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    1 January 1956
    • Comprehensive Peace Agreement
    6 January 2005
    • Autonomy
    9 July 2005
    • Independence from Sudan
    9 July 2011
    • United Nations admission
    13 July 2011
    Area
    • Total
    619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (41st)
    Population
    • 2016 estimate
    12,230,730[5]
    • 2008 census
    8,260,490 (disputed)[6] (94th)
    • Density
    13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
    GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $20.038 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $1,525[7]
    GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
    • Total
    $3.618 billion[7]
    • Per capita
    $275[7]
    Gini (2009) 45.5[8]
    medium
    HDI (2015) Decrease 0.418[9]
    low · 181st
    Currency South Sudanese pound (SSP)
    Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
    Drives on the right
    Calling code +211[10]
    ISO 3166 code SS
    Internet TLD .ss[11]a
    Registered, but not yet operational.

    The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan.
    Bahr el Ghazal
    Equatoria
    Greater Upper Nile
    South Sudan is a country in Africa. Its official name is the Republic of South Sudan.[12] It used to be a part of Sudan. A civil war began in 2013.

    The landlocked country is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and the Republic of Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.

    History
    What is now South Sudan was once part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. This part of the British Empire became the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011 at midnight local time,[13][14] after a referendum held in January 2011. In the referendum, nearly 99% of voters wanted to separate from the rest of Sudan.[15]

    The United Nations Security Council met on 13 July 2011 to formally discuss membership for the Republic of South Sudan. The next day, 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state.[16][17] South Sudan has also applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[18] the East African Community,[19][20] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[21] the International Monetary Fund,[22] and the World Bank.[23] The country was declared eligible to apply for membership in the Arab League as well.[24]

    At the 2012 Summer Olympics, one athlete from South Sudan competed under the flag of the International Olympic Committee.[25] In 2013 a civil war broke out.

    Geography
    Its capital is Juba. Between eight and twelve million people live there. Over 200 languages are spoken, but the official language is English. Arabic is also spoken by many people.

    The main religion is Christianity, practised by nearly 78% of the population. Another 20% practise African traditional religions, and just 3% are Muslim.

    Much of South Sudan’s economy is based on oil, but they also have a large lumber industry mainly consisting of teak. It is a very poor and under-developed country. There is very little infrastructure, and the civil wars have caused a lot of damage.

    References
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011”. Government of South Sudan. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. Part One, 6(2). “English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan”.
    “At a Glance”. Official portal. Government of Southern Sudan. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
    “The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011” (PDF). Government of South Sudan. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
    “S. Sudanese government agrees to federal system with rebels – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan”. Sudan Tribune. Addis Ababa. 27 September 2014.
    “World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision”. ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
    “Discontent over Sudan census”. News24.com. AFP. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan”. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.
    “Gini Index”. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
    “2016 Human Development Report” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
    International Telecommunication Union (14 July 2011). “New country, new number: Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan”. Press release. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
    “.ss Domain Delegation Data”. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. ICANN. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    “South Sudan”. The World Factbook. CIA. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1)
    Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2)
    Fick, Maggie (30 January 2011). “Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession”. USA Today. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
    Worsnip, Patrick (14 July 2011). “South Sudan admitted to U.N. as 193rd member”. Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
    “UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State”. United Nations News Service. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    “South Sudan launches bid to join Commonwealth”. Talk of Sudan. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “South Sudan: Big trading potential for EAC”. IGIHE. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
    “Welcome South Sudan to EAC!”. East African Business Week. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies”. Sudan Tribune. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
    “IMF receives membership application from South Sudan, seeks contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to help new country”. International Monetary Fund. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “World Bank group congratulates people of South Sudan on independence”. The Financial. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
    “South Sudan “entitled to join Arab League””. Sudan Tribune. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
    “London 2012: Refugee runs for world, family walk 50km to watch,” NDTV (New Delhi Television), 11 August 2012; retrieved 2012-8-16.
    Notes

    The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, Part One, 6(1): “All indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted”.[3]
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  28. Natale Ngong Matiel Lual

    An election can take place any time in any form but in the meantime, it is not a priority. We need to get the ruling elites to understand that the positions of government including that of a president can be filled by any South Sudanese. Fundamental freedoms are a prerequisite for a free and fair elections. Currently, people are not free to organise rallies unless they are pro-government. This does not go with the principles of democracy under which a free and fair elections. Lacks of freedoms should be noted as one factor leading to warlord-ism. A space must first exist for opposition parties to conduct their activities in conformity with laws. Finally, elections can be done after 5 years if we don’t want a return to war.

When do you want elections in South Sudan?

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